Negative Update Intervals in Deep Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning
In Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning, independent cooperative learners must overcome a number of pathologies in order to learn optimal joint policies. These pathologies include action-shadowing, stochasticity, the moving target and alter-exploration problems (Matignon, Laurent, and Le Fort-Piat 2012; Wei and Luke 2016). Numerous methods have been proposed to address these pathologies, but evaluations are predominately conducted in repeated strategic-form games and stochastic games consisting of only a small number of state transitions. This raises the question of the scalability of the methods to complex, temporally extended, partially observable domains with stochastic transitions and rewards. In this paper we study such complex settings, which require reasoning over long time horizons and confront agents with the curse of dimensionality. To deal with the dimensionality, we adopt a Multi-Agent Deep Reinforcement Learning (MA-DRL) approach. We find that when the agents have to make critical decisions in seclusion, existing methods succumb to a combination of relative overgeneralisation (a type of action shadowing), the alter-exploration problem, and the stochasticity. To address these pathologies we introduce expanding negative update intervals that enable independent learners to establish the near-optimal average utility values for higher-level strategies while largely discarding transitions from episodes that result in mis-coordination. We evaluate Negative Update Intervals Double-DQN (NUI-DDQN) within a temporally extended Climb Game, a normal form game which has frequently been used to study relative over-generalisation and other pathologies. We show that NUI-DDQN can converge towards optimal joint-policies in deterministic and stochastic reward settings, overcoming relative-overgeneralisation and the alter-exploration problem while mitigating the moving target problem.