Learning Attractor Dynamics for Generative Memory

Abstract

A central challenge faced by memory systems is the robust retrieval of a stored pattern in the presence of interference due to other stored patterns and noise. A theoretically well-founded solution to robust retrieval is given by attractor dynamics, which iteratively clean up patterns during recall. However, incorporating attractor dynamics into modern deep learning systems poses difficulties: attractor basins are characterised by vanishing gradients, which are known to make training neural networks difficult. In this work, we avoid the vanishing gradient problem by training a generative distributed memory without simulating the attractor dynamics. Based on the idea of memory writing as inference, as proposed in the Kanerva Machine, we show that a likelihood-based Lyapunov function emerges from maximising the variational lower-bound of a generative memory. Experiments shows it converges to correct patterns upon iterative retrieval and achieves competitive performance as both a memory model and a generative model.

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