Hybrid Models for Open Set Recognition

Abstract

Open set recognition requires a classifier to detect samples not belonging to any of the classes in its training set. Existing methods fit a probability distribution to the training samples on their embedding space and detect outliers according to this distribution. The embedding space is often obtained from a discriminative classifier. However, such discriminative representation focuses only on known classes, which may not be critical for distinguishing the unknown classes. We argue that the representation space should be jointly learned from the inlier classifier and the density estimator (served as an outlier detector). We propose the OpenHybrid framework, which is composed of an encoder to encode the input data into a joint embedding space, a classifier to classify samples to inlier classes, and a flow-based density estimator to detect whether a sample belongs to the unknown category. A typical problem of existing flow-based models is that they may assign a higher likelihood to outliers. However, we empirically observe that such an issue does not occur in our experiments when learning a joint representation for discriminative and generative components. Experiments on standard open set benchmarks also reveal that an end-to-end trained OpenHybrid model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods and flow-based baselines.

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