On the Pitfalls of static language modeling


Our world is open-ended, non-stationary, and constantly evolving; thus what we talk about and how we talk about it change over time. This inherent dynamic nature of language contrasts with the current static language modelling paradigm, which trains and evaluates on utterances from the same, overlapping time periods. Despite impressive recent progress, we demonstrate that state-of-the-art Transformer models perform worse in the realistic setup of predicting future utterances from beyond their training period, and that model performance degrades more substantially with time. We find that, while increasing model size alone---a key driver behind recent progress---does not solve this problem, having models that continually update their knowledge with new information can indeed mitigate the performance degradation over time. Hence, given the compilation of ever-larger language modelling datasets, combined with the growing list of language-model-based NLP applications that require up-to-date factual knowledge about the world, we argue that now is the right time to rethink our static language modelling evaluation protocol, and develop adaptive language models that can remain up-to-date with respect to our ever-changing and non-stationary world. We will publicly release our streaming language modelling benchmarks for WMT and arXiv to facilitate language model evaluation that takes temporal dynamics into account.